But I will harden his heart, that he shall not let the people go.
Ex 4:21

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God's Sovereignty Over Man's Depravity

If God makes a positive declaration through prophecy that someone will sin, does that make God the author of sin?  It has been said that God cannot positively decree, ordain or predetermine that a person will sin without being the author or originator of that sin.  In Exodus 4:21, God positively declares that He will harden the heart of Pharaoh so that Pharaoh would not let the children of Israel go.  This passage of scripture shows us conclusively that God is Sovereign, even over the sins of man.

It is certain that Pharaoh’s refusal to release the Isrealites was sin, Ex 9:34.  Even Pharaoh identifies his refusal as sin, Ex 9:27, Ex 10:16-17.  Did God decree, ordain or predetermine that Pharaoh would sin?  Most certainly He did.  God can and does permit people to sin and it may be said that God permitted Pharaoh to sin.  But this is more than just a bare permission because God said, I will harden his heart, that he shall not let the people go.  Does this mean God is the author of sin?  A careful study of the scriptures reveals that, No, He is not the author of sin.  As we shall see, God can and does decree, ordain or predetermine that a person will sin but that does not make God chargeable for it.

The Apostle James sets the record straight when he says: 

Let no man say when he is tempted, I am tempted of God: for God cannot be tempted with evil, neither tempteth he any man:  But every man is tempted, when he is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed.  Then when lust hath conceived, it bringeth forth sin: and sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth death.  Do not err, my beloved brethren.  James 1:13-16

Let it be clearly understood, the scriptures that follow may look like God was tempting Pharaoh to sin.  But this is absolutely not the case.  God knew everything that Pharaoh would do and had already determined the outcome of all Pharaoh’s actions, Is 46:10.  In every case it was Pharaoh who was tempted, when he was drawn away of his own lust, and enticed.  And when Pharaoh’s lust had conceived, it brought forth sin: and sin, when it was finished, brought forth Pharaoh’s death.  On this point we must not err, my beloved brethren.  Let there be no mistake, Pharaoh is held fully accountable for all his sins and he suffered the just consequences of his actions.

In the account that follows we will see: 

  • Eleven times the scriptures record that God hardened Pharaoh’s heart; marked in bold red.
  • Three times the scriptures record that Pharaoh hardened his own heart; underlined in red.
  • Four times the scriptures record that Pharaoh’s heart was hardened without specifying who hardened it; marked in red onlyWas hardened indicates the circumstances were hardening Pharaoh’s heart, as in each of the other times. Also, Ex 9:34-35 indicates that when Pharaoh's heart was hardened, it was Pharaoh who was hardening his heart.
  • One time the scriptures record that God hardened the hearts of Pharaoh and his entire army: underlined in  bold red.

 

This story originates in Genesis when God spoke to Abram and said,

Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years; And also that nation, whom they shall serve, will I judge: and afterward shall they come out with great substance.  Ge 15:13-14

Speaking on this passage in Acts 7:6, Stephen says:
And God spake on this wise, That his seed should sojourn in a strange land; and that they should bring them into bondage, and entreat them evil four hundred years. 
Thus, Pharaoh’s condemnation for his own sin is certain.

Turning our attention to the book of Exodus, we read,
And the LORD said unto Moses, When thou goest to return into Egypt, see that thou do all those wonders before Pharaoh, which I have put in thine hand: but I will harden his heart, that he shall not let the people go, Ex 4:21.

Here we see God clearly decreeing, ordaining or predetermining that He would harden Pharaoh’s heart so that he would not let the people go.  At this point, one might wonder how God could not be charged with Pharaoh’s sin.  What we will learn is God did not harden Pharaoh’s heart through a direct action upon him.  Pharaoh’s heart was hardened through the secondary circumstances that tempted him of his own lust and caused his heart to be hardened.  All these circumstances revealed what was already in his heart.

That God may decree or predetermine that a person will sin and not be chargeable for that sin is an apparent dichotomy.  But, by faith, we must believe the entire Bible.  We cannot chose to believe only the parts of the Bible we feel comfortable with or else we will find ourselves refusing to believe the whole counsel of God.

 

The First Sign:  The Rod Becomes a Serpent

Ex 7:3  And I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt. 

Here we observe one of the reasons why God was going to harden Pharaoh’s heart, was to multiply his signs and wonders.  Therefore, from God’s perspective His hardening of Pharaoh’s heart was not to make Pharaoh sin, Pharaoh was already a sinner, but it was to multiply his signs and wonders.  Later in the scriptures we see that these signs and wonders were not only to bring glory to God but they were used to remind the Israelites of the greatness of the LORD God.

Ex 7:11  Then Pharaoh also called the wise men and the sorcerers: now the magicians of Egypt, they also did in like manner with their enchantments.
Ex 7:12  For they cast down every man his rod, and they became serpents: but Aaron’s rod swallowed up their rods.
Ex 7:13  And he (God) hardened Pharaoh’s heart, that he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.
Ex 7:14  And the LORD said unto Moses, Pharaoh’s heart is hardened, he refuseth to let the people go.

When Pharaoh saw his magician’s rods became serpents like Aaron’s, the scriptures record this is how God hardened Pharaoh’s heart.  It is likely that Pharaoh thought, If my magicians can turn their rods into serpents, why should I listen to Moses?  This event is no temptation by God to get Pharaoh to sin but it is God revealing through secondary causes or circumstances the sin that was already in Pharaoh’s heart.  

 

The First Plague:  The Water Turned to Blood

Ex 7:19 And the LORD spake unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and stretch out thine hand upon the waters of Egypt, upon their streams, upon their rivers, and upon their ponds, and upon all their pools of water, that they may become blood; and [that] there may be blood throughout all the land of Egypt, both in vessels of wood, and in vessels of stone.
Ex 7:20 And Moses and Aaron did so, as the LORD commanded; and he lifted up the rod, and smote the waters that were in the river, in the sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight of his servants; and all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood.
Ex 7:22  And the magicians of Egypt did so with their enchantments: and Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, neither did he hearken unto them; as the LORD had said.

Pharaoh witnessed Moses and Aaron turning the water to blood but when Pharaoh saw his magicians do likewise, again Pharaoh’s heart was hardened.  Notice that the scriptures do not specify whether it was God or Pharaoh hardening his heart.  This is because it is the secondary causes (the magicians turning the water to blood) that hardened Pharaoh’s heart.  It is these secondary causes in every plague that hardens Pharaoh’s heart.

 

The Second Plague:  Of Frogs

Ex 8:6 And Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt; and the frogs came up, and covered the land of Egypt.
Ex 8:7 And the magicians did so with their enchantments, and brought up frogs upon the land of Egypt.
Ex 8:8 Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron, and said, Intreat the LORD, that he may take away the frogs from me, and from my people; and I will let the people go, that they may do sacrifice unto the LORD.
Ex 8:12 And Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh: and Moses cried unto the LORD because of the frogs which he had brought against Pharaoh.
Ex 8:13 And the LORD did according to the word of Moses; and the frogs died out of the houses, out of the villages, and out of the fields.
Ex 8:14 And they gathered them together upon heaps: and the land stank.
Ex 8:15  But when Pharaoh saw that there was respite, he hardened his heart, and hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.

Under duress, Pharaoh promised to let the people go if Moses would end the plague of frogs.  But because there was “respite,” Pharaoh hardened his heart.  Again we see that it was a secondary cause, the respite that caused Pharaoh to harden his heart.  We also see that even God’s goodness to Pharaoh, the removing of the frogs, caused (not directly but indirectly) Pharaoh to sin.

 

Third Plague:  Of Lice

Ex 8:16 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch out thy rod, and smite the dust of the land, that it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt.
Ex 8:17 And they did so; for Aaron stretched out his hand with his rod, and smote the dust of the earth, and it became lice in man, and in beast; all the dust of the land became lice throughout all the land of Egypt.
Ex 8:18 And the magicians did so with their enchantments to bring forth lice, but they could not: so there were lice upon man, and upon beast.
Ex 8:19  Then the magicians said unto Pharaoh, This is the finger of God: and Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.

This is the first time Pharaoh's magicians have not been able to duplicate Moses and Aaron's signs.  Pharaoh’s heart was hardened by the magicians when they said, “This is the finger of God.”  The magician's observation is another example of a secondary cause that led proud Pharaoh’s heart to be hardened, Ex 10:3.  Pride goeth before destruction, and an haughty spirit before a fall.  Pr 16:18 

 

Fourth Plague:  Of Flies

Ex 8:24 And the LORD did so; and there came a grievous swarm of flies into the house of Pharaoh, and into his servants’ houses, and into all the land of Egypt: the land was corrupted by reason of the swarm of flies.
Ex 8:28 And Pharaoh said, I will let you go, that ye may sacrifice to the LORD your God in the wilderness; only ye shall not go very far away: intreat for me.
Ex 8:29 And Moses said, Behold, I go out from thee, and I will intreat the LORD that the swarms of flies may depart from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people, to morrow: but let not Pharaoh deal deceitfully any more in not letting the people go to sacrifice to the LORD.
Ex 8:30 And Moses went out from Pharaoh, and intreated the LORD.
Ex 8:31  And the LORD did according to the word of Moses; and he removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his servants, and from his people; there remained not one.
Ex 8:32  And Pharaoh hardened his heart at this time also, neither would he let the people go.

Once the flies were gone, as with the respite in Ex 8:15, Pharaoh again, through secondary causes (i.e. the respite), hardens his heart. 

 

Fifth Plague:  The Livestock Killed with a Murrain

Ex 9:3 Behold, the hand of the LORD is upon thy cattle which is in the field, upon the horses, upon the asses, upon the camels, upon the oxen, and upon the sheep: there shall be a very grievous murrain.
Ex 9:4 And the LORD shall sever between the cattle of Israel and the cattle of Egypt: and there shall nothing die of all that is the children’s of Israel.
Ex 9:5 And the LORD appointed a set time, saying, To morrow the LORD shall do this thing in the land.
Ex 9:6 And the LORD did that thing on the morrow, and all the cattle of Egypt died: but of the cattle of the children of Israel died not one.
Ex 9:7  And Pharaoh sent, and, behold, there was not one of the cattle of the Israelites dead. And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he did not let the people go.

Through secondary causes Pharaoh’s heart is hardened because none of the children of Israel’s cattle were dead.  It is the circumstances God is bringing into Pharaoh’s life which reveal the sin of his heart and how great that sin is!

 

Sixth Plague:  The Boils

Ex 9:8 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses and unto Aaron, Take to you handfuls of ashes of the furnace, and let Moses sprinkle it toward the heaven in the sight of Pharaoh.
Ex 9:9 And it shall become small dust in all the land of Egypt, and shall be a boil breaking forth with blains upon man, and upon beast, throughout all the land of Egypt.
Ex 9:10 And they took ashes of the furnace, and stood before Pharaoh; and Moses sprinkled it up toward heaven; and it became a boil breaking forth with blains upon man, and upon beast.
Ex 9:11  And the magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils; for the boil was upon the magicians, and upon all the Egyptians.
Ex 9:12  And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh, and he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had spoken unto Moses.

Whether Pharaoh’s heart was hardened because the magicians could not longer stand before Moses or not is difficult to ascertain.  But Pharaoh’s stubbornness is plainly evident, 1Sa 15:23.  Undoubtedly, it was through Pharaoh’s continued stubbornness and pride that his heart was hardened, Ex 10:3.

 

Seventh Plague:  The Thunder and Hail Mixed with Fire

Ex 9:23 And Moses stretched forth his rod toward heaven: and the LORD sent thunder and hail, and the fire ran along upon the ground; and the LORD rained hail upon the land of Egypt.
Ex 9:24 So there was hail, and fire mingled with the hail, very grievous, such as there was none like it in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation.
Ex 9:25 And the hail smote throughout all the land of Egypt all that was in the field, both man and beast; and the hail smote every herb of the field, and brake every tree of the field.
Ex 9:27  And Pharaoh sent, and called for Moses and Aaron, and said unto them, I have sinned this time: the LORD is righteous, and I and my people are wicked.
Ex 9:33  And Moses went out of the city from Pharaoh, and spread abroad his hands unto the LORD: and the thunders and hail ceased, and the rain was not poured upon the earth.
Ex 9:34  And when Pharaoh saw that the rain and the hail and the thunders were ceased, he sinned yet more, and hardened his heart, he and his servants.
Ex 9:35  And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, neither would he let the children of Israel go; as the LORD had spoken by Moses

In this passage we gain more insight into Pharaoh’s heart when he acknowledges for the first time that he has sinned and that he and his people are wicked.  However, the scriptures reveal that he sinned even more by refusing to let the people go and that he did so by hardening his heart.  On this occasion his heart was hardened when the hail and thunders were ceased.  This is the same way it was hardened as when there was a respite in Ex 8:15.

 

Interlude Between Seventh and Eighth Plagues

Ex 10:1  And the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants, that I might shew these my signs before him:
Ex 10:2  And that thou mayest tell in the ears of thy son, and of thy son’s son, what things I have wrought in Egypt, and my signs which I have done among them; that ye may know how that I am the LORD.
Ex 10:3  And Moses and Aaron came in unto Pharaoh, and said unto him, Thus saith the LORD God of the Hebrews, How long wilt thou refuse to humble thyself before me?   Let my people go, that they may serve me.
This passage identifies that the way in which God was hardening Pharaoh’s heart was not through a direct action upon him, but through Pharaoh’s pride and stubbornness, Pharaoh refused to humble himself.
Also, the LORD that the purpose of allowing Pharaoh to continue defying God’s will, was so that the Israelites would be able to tell their descendants the great things God had done that they might know that the LORD is God.

 

Eighth Plague:  The Locusts

Ex 10:14  And the locusts went up over all the land of Egypt, and rested in all the coasts of Egypt: very grievous were they; before them there were no such locusts as they, neither after them shall be such.
Ex 10:15  For they covered the face of the whole earth, so that the land was darkened; and they did eat every herb of the land, and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left: and there remained not any green thing in the trees, or in the herbs of the field, through all the land of Egypt.
Ex 10:16  Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron in haste; and he said, I have sinned against the LORD your God, and against you.
Ex 10:17  Now therefore forgive, I pray thee, my sin only this once, and intreat the LORD your God, that he may take away from me this death only.
Ex 10:18  And he went out from Pharaoh, and intreated the LORD.
Ex 10:19  And the LORD turned a mighty strong west wind, which took away the locusts, and cast them into the Red sea; there remained not one locust in all the coasts of Egypt.
Ex 10:20  But the LORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go. 

The Lord hardened Pharaoh’s heart not by directly hardening it but by taking away the locusts.  If anything, God’s goodness towards Pharaoh led Pharaoh to harden his heart because the locusts were gone.  Further, Pharaoh admits that he is to blame for his sin in verses 16 and 17, thus God is not left chargeable for Pharaoh’s sin. 

 

Ninth Plague:  The Thick Darkness

Ex 10:22 And Moses stretched forth his hand toward heaven; and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days:
Ex 10:23 They saw not one another, neither rose any from his place for three days: but all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings.
Ex 10:24 And Pharaoh called unto Moses, and said, Go ye, serve the LORD; only let your flocks and your herds be stayed: let your little ones also go with you.
Ex 10:25 And Moses said, Thou must give us also sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we may sacrifice unto the LORD our God.
Ex 10:26 Our cattle also shall go with us; there shall not an hoof be left behind; for thereof must we take to serve the LORD our God; and we know not with what we must serve the LORD, until we come thither.
Ex 10:27  But the LORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he would not let them go.

As in Ex 8:15, Pharaoh’s heart was hardened because the darkness was ended and Moses would not compromise and leave the flocks and herds.

  

Tenth Plague:  The Death of All the Firstborn

Ex 11:1 ¶ And the LORD said unto Moses, Yet will I bring one plague more upon Pharaoh, and upon Egypt; afterwards he will let you go hence: when he shall let you go, he shall surely thrust you out hence altogether.
Ex 11:4 ¶ And Moses said, Thus saith the LORD, About midnight will I go out into the midst of Egypt:
Ex  11:5  And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of beasts.
Ex  11:6  And there shall be a great cry throughout all the land of Egypt, such as there was none like it, nor shall be like it any more.
Ex  11:9  And the LORD said unto Moses, Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you; that my wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.
Ex  11:10  And Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh: and the LORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go out of his land. 

God reiterates that the purpose of the ten wonders and the hardening of Pharaoh’s heart each time thus far are to multiply His wonders in the land of Egypt.

Ex 12:29 ¶ And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle.
Ex 12:30  And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead.
Ex 12:31  And he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve the LORD, as ye have said.
Ex 12:32  Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me also.

Now with the tenth and final plague, Pharaoh thrusts the people out of Israel.  Just as God said, He no longer hardens Pharaoh's heart and Pharaoh lets the people go. 

 

The Israelites Camp by the Red Sea

Ex 14:1 ¶ And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
Ex 14:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, that they turn and encamp before Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baalzephon: before it shall ye encamp by the sea.
Ex 14:3  For Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, They are entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shut them in.
Ex 14:4  And I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, that he shall follow after them; and I will be honoured upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host; that the Egyptians may know that I am the LORD. And they did so. 
Ex 14:5  And it was told the king of Egypt that the people fled: and the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was turned against the people, and they said, Why have we done this, that we have let Israel go from serving us?
Ex 14:6  And he made ready his chariot, and took his people with him:
Ex 14:8  And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued after the children of Israel: and the children of Israel went out with an high hand. 

Pharaoh’s heart was hardened again through secondary causes.  Pharaoh regrets loosing his slave labor and he pursues after the people because he thinks they are entangled in the land and that the wilderness had shut them in.  Also we see that God is bringing this to pass in order that He may gain honor over Pharaoh by demonstrating his deliverance with a high hand and ultimately destroying Pharaoh and the Egyptian army in the Red Sea.

 

The Israelites Pass Through the Red Sea

Ex 14:16  But lift thou up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over the sea, and divide it: and the children of Israel shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea.
Ex 14:17  And I, behold, I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they shall follow them: and I will get me honour upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen. 

Pharaoh’s heart was hardened one last time by seeing the Israelites escaping through the Red Sea.  Not only was Pharaoh’s heart hardened but his entire army foolishly pursues the Israelites into the sea.  God’s final honor over Pharaoh after destroying the Egyptian nation, destroying all their livestock, all their crops and finally all their first born is to destroy Pharaoh and his army in the sea.

Ex 14:26 And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the sea, that the waters may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen.
Ex 14:27 And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to his strength when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled against it; and the LORD overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea.
Ex 14:28 And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there remained not so much as one of them.

Conclusion

God hardened the heart of Pharaoh for the purpose of destroying him and bringing honor to his name.  As we consider this, we turn to the Apostle Paul’s exposition to the church at Rome.

Ro 9:15  For he saith to Moses, I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion.  (Ex 33:19)
Ro 9:16  So then it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy.
Ro 9:17  For the scripture saith unto Pharaoh, Even for this same purpose have I raised thee up, that I might shew my power in thee, and that my name might be declared throughout all the earth. (Ex 9:16)
Ro 9:18  Therefore hath he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth.

It is God’s sovereign prerogative why he has mercy on one and hardens another.  But it is a fact that God operates in this manner.  Paul anticipates that many would object to the way God dealt with Pharaoh and says in the next verse:

Ro 9:19  Thou wilt say then unto me, Why doth he yet find fault? For who hath resisted his will?

Indeed, who has resisted the will of God?  But the issue is not one of God forcing Pharaoh to do something that was against his will; rather it's the way Pharaoh was made that determined his response to his circumstance.  Thus Paul concludes with:

Ro 9:15  Nay but, O man, who art thou that repliest against God? Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it, Why hast thou made me thus?

No one may dare reply against God.  God formed Pharaoh specifically for the purpose of justifiably destroying him for his sins and showing His power over Pharaoh and declaring his name throughout the earth.  God’s name is still being declared throughout the earth for his great power in dealing with Pharaoh and all other sinners upon the earth whose destruction continues to bring glory to God.  Therefore, Paul continues,

Ro 9:21  Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour?

What a power this is to make man as he wishes, some to honor others to dishonor!  This power of God is not only one of ability but one of authority.  Regardless of whether mankind likes it or not, God has the power and the authority to make his pots of clay exactly as he pleases.  Then to answer the question of why God does this, Paul concludes with:

Ro 9:22  What if God, willing to shew his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much longsuffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction:
Ro 9:23  And that he might make known the riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy, which he had afore prepared unto glory,
Ro 9:24  Even us, whom he hath called, not of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles?

Paul puts this forth as a question but it has a rhetorical answer.  What if God does these things in the manner just described? He does it because He will show his wrath and His longsuffering towards sinners who justly suffer their destruction.  And he does it because He will make known the riches of his glory on sinners who are the recipients of his mercy.

God orchestrated events that ended with Pharaoh's sin.  But these events merely revealed what was already in Pharaoh’s heart’s desire to do.  God did not put that sin there.  Pharaoh’s succumbing to temptation was all of his, born out of his lust for power and hatred of God.

Because the subject of how God may decree a person will sin and yet not be the author of it is a difficult doctrine to grasp, sometimes through misunderstanding a person might be led into error.  For that reason, many have chosen not to discuss it.  However, it is provable from the scriptures that anyone who is led to sin through a misunderstanding of this subject only does so because they are revealing the sin that is in their heart.  The spiritually minded person will not falter but give glory to God for his sovereign majesty as He reigns and rules all the affairs of His creation.

God told Moses these things were brought to pass in order to bring Him much honor and glory.  If we are able to lay hold of these great truths, we will likewise bring much honor and glory to His holy name.

Elder James Taylor

 
 

Edit 10/5/2006

 

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